Finally this unit also brings out the uniformities in the material characteristics of the Harappan sites. Kalibangan is situated in northern Rajasthan (Kalibangan means black bangles). Bones of fish and fowl are also found. Script and Language. We have no clear idea about the political organization of the Harappans. Excavation of Harappan websites has actually been recurring considering that 1920, with essential developments taking place as just recently as 1999. In Harappa numerous terracotta figurines of women have been found. The two most important cities were Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. This culture is noticeable in its mature and flourishing stage at all these six places. Harappan civilization forms part of the proto history of India i.e. Big buildings distinguished both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro. However, one can see the various elements of the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization in later cultures. Foodgrains were stored in granaries in Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and in Kalibangan. Script (Undecipher) C. Trade. the script is there, but it cannot be deciphered and belongs to the Bronze Age. Evidence of the horse comes from a superficial level of Mohenjo-daro and from a doubtful terracotta figurine from Lothal. 2700- BC.1900 ie. Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 – 4 Marks Questions. All the seals have pictures of animals with something written in a pictographic script (which is yet to be deciphered). NCERT Extracts - The Harappan Culture History, Timeline - Major developments in Harappan Archaeology, Copyright © 2007-2020 | Here raw materials such as semi-precious stones were easily available. 11. Mohenjodaro is the most well-known site of Harappan Civilisation. All rights reserved    |, Sociology Mains Test Series 2020 - Join Now, Prelims Test Series 2021 (Online) - Join Now. gradual growth of towns in the Indus valley. Harappan Civilization - Ancient India for UPSC prelims 2018 and 2019 You can find the other course of Arpita Sharma here : https://goo.gl/XCbgKm This Session is … The Harappan culture belongs to the Bronze Age. The Harappan invented the art of writing like the people of ancient Mesopotamia. This style is called Tin was possibly brought with difficulty from Afghanistan. The Harappans also knew the art of measurement. These were specialized centres for making shell objects, including bangles, ladles and inlay. | Textile impressions have been found on several objects. D. Lothal and Rangpur. Seals, Script, Weights of Harappan Civilisation. Harappan Script. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is the beginning of the history of India. Notification In almost all cities every big or small house had its own courtyard and bathroom. Amulets have been found in large numbers. Animals were also worshipped in Harappan times. UPSC; GK TRICKS; GENERAL KNOWLEDGE . practically disappeared. B. The Harappan script has not yet been convincingly deciphered. Ans D. Lothal and Rangpur. The male deity is represented on a seal. There are nearly 4,000 specimens of Harappan writing on stone seals and other objects. Harappan culture was famous for its distinguished system of town planning. (All India 2017) Answer: The most unique feature of the Harappan Civilisation was the development of urban centres. Rimpa Dey. He is represented in the sitting posture of a yogi, placing one foot on the other. Question 22. It was believed to be a hub of art and culture and architecture. Their script has not been deciphered so far, There are nearly 4000 specimens of Harappan writing on stone seals and other objects, Unlike the Egyptians and Mesopotamians, the Harappans did not write long inscriptions. VISIT US. The Harappans, therefore, looked upon the earth as a fertility goddess and worshipped her in the same manner as the Egyptians worshipped the Nile goddess Isis. 4. The script was written from right to left and it comprises 400 signs. Franchise It is believed that the Indus Valley region experienced several. Harrapan civilisation: a very important topic for upsc prelims as well as mains examination. the pre-Harappan stage is located in eastern Baluchistan. selfstudyhistory.com Apart from the dates, the pace of decline also varied. In Kalibangan many houses had their wells. At his feet appear two deer. Hoards of jewellery were buried at places, and skulls were huddled together at one place. They did not use metal money. At sites such as Dholavira and Lothal (Gujarat), the entire settlement was fortified, and sections within the town were also separated by walls. They mention the products from Meluhha: camelian, lapis lazuli, copper, gold etc. The street drains were equipped with manholes. Yet others argue that there was a single state, given the similarity in artefacts, the evidence for planned settlements, the standardised ratio of brick size, and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw material. The field had two sets of furrows at right angles to each other, suggesting that two different crops were grown together. The Harappans also practised boat-making. The script was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second line. FAQ Sometimes these drains were covered with bricks and sometimes with stone slabs. Their cities also carried commerce with those in the land of the Tigris and the Euphrates. Also known as the Harappan civilization, it dates back to 2500 years ago. Nearly 1500 Harappan sites are known so far in the subcontinent. 1875          -       Report of Alexander Cunningham on Harappan seal, 1921          -       M.S. Although the earliest specimen of Harappan script was noticed in 1853 and the complete script discovered by 1923, it has not been deciphered so far. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 16054 times. Granary was the largest building of Mohenjodaro. While the prevalence of agriculture is indicated by finds of grain, it is more, Representations on seals and terracotta sculpture indicate that the. job examination in India such as SSC, UPSC, Railway, Banking and so on. GENERAL SCIENCE-सामान्य विज्ञान ... (Script and Language) सभ्यता की लिपि या भाषा अभी तक संतोषजनक ढंग से व्याख्यायित नहीं हुई है।(The script or language of the civilization has not yet been deciphered satisfactorily.) These two metals were not easily available to the Harappans. The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between … | In 1924, John Marshall, Director-General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilisation in the Indus valley to the world. Uploaded by. B. Surkothda and Rakhigadi. The Harappan Civilisation Therefore it would be wrong to think that priests ruled in Harappa. Such urban centres include Harappa, Ganeriwala, Mohenjo-Daro in Pakistan, and Dholavira, Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, Rupar, and Lothal in India. Harappan script was written in a boustrophedon fashion i.e. Seals ,Sealings and Scripts. B. Dravidian. Sample Papers A. Undecipherable. C. Chahundaro and Kalibangan. The contrast between the two sets indicates the gap between the classes which used them. The urban planning of the Harappan has become a landmark for the contemporary civilization and we can get a hint of the modern-day swimming pools and storehouses from their concept of bathing pools and granaries. Jan 02, 2021 - Indus Valley Civilisation Part - 1 UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. Millets are found from sites in Gujarat. About 2,000 seals have been found, and of these a great majority carry short inscriptions with pictures of the one-homed bull, the buffalo, the tiger, the rhinoceros, the goat and the elephant. In some instances the dead were buried with copper mirrors. It extended from Jammu in the north to the Narmada estuary in the south, and from the Makran coast of Baluchistan in the west of Meerut in the north-east.t. If the bag of goods reached with its sealing intact, it meant that it had not been tampered with. Bisht begins excavations at Dholavira. Seals also conveyed the identity of the sender. IES; Mentoring . No temples have been found at any Harappan sites. The late Harappan cultures are primarily chalcolithic in which tools of stone and copper are used. Seals, Script, Weights of Harappan Civilisation Let us learn about this very important part of our history A large building found at Mohenjodaro was labelled as a palace by archaeologists. Numerous symbols of the phallus and female sex organs made of stone have been found. However, plenty of archaeological remains are found in different parts of India to reconstruct the history of this period. Mohenjodaro had a population of about 35,000. There are no written records are available for the prehistoric period. This is true of almost all Indus settlements. Recent archaeological finds suggest that copper was also brought from Oman. A distinctive type of vessel, a large Harappan jar coated with a thick layer of black clay has been found at Omani sites. Harappan Civilisation – Indian History NCERT Notes. The use of baked bricks in Harappan cities is remarkable. Huge brick structure suggest that brick- laying was an important craft. C. Chahundaro and Kalibangan. | The longest text has about twenty six signs. Below the citadel in each city lay a lower town containing brick houses, which were inhabited by the common people. In later cultures various elements of the IVC are found which suggest that civilization did not disappear suddenly due to an invasion. Lothal stood beside a tributary of the Sabarmati. A few seals were also carried as amulets, perhaps as a kind of identity card. The drainage system of Mohenjo-daro was very impressive. Rimpa Dey. The Harappa script has 400 to 500 signs and it is generally agreed that it is not an alphabetic form of writing. A trade point between Harappa and Babylon, Evidence of both pre-Harappan and Harappan culture, The Early Harappan Phase is related to the, By 2600 BC, the Indus Valley Civilization had entered into a, The early Harappan communities were turning into large urban centers, like. Very few written materials have been discovered in the Indus valley and the scholars have not been able to decipher the Indus script so far. Solved Papers Go to History Notes & Study Materials Page. We get many figurines made of fire-baked earthen clay, commonly called terracotta. Granary was the largest building of Mohenjodaro. | 10. Harappa and Mohenjo-daro each had its own citadel or acropolis, which was possibly occupied by members of the ruling class. Question 23. About Situated at a distance of 483 kilometres they were linked together by the Indus. This is the latest video from the Harappan Culture by Chanchal Kumar Sharma. In 1920s, the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus valley wherein the ruins of the two old cities, viz. 1st line from right to left and then next line from left to right…. 3. All this can be attributed to the barbarian horse-riding people (i.e. Most inscriptions were recorded on seals, and contain only a few words. UPSC PREPARATION Friday, 3 March 2017. The remarkable thing about the arrangement of the houses in the cities is that they followed the, In almost all cities every big or small house had its own, At sites such as Dholavira and Lothal (Gujarat), the entire settlement was. 1. Study Packages Mesopotamian texts refer to Meluhha as a land of seafarers. The area formed a triangle and accounted for about 12,99,600 square kilometres. Agriculture was generally practiced along the river banks most of which were flooded during … Most Harappan sites are located in semi-arid lands, where irrigation was probably required for agriculture. These are texts which help to build the fundamentals. Soon after the discovery of cities like Lothal, Dholavira, Mohenjodaro, and Kalibangan have also been discovered and were come to be known as the Harappan cities or also the advent of Harappan Civilization. They had set up a trading colony in northern Afghanistan which evidently facilitated trade with Central Asia. C. Sanskrit. It is a 5,000-year-old site that showcases continuity from the Harappan age to the present times. Question 7. civilization (because the 1st excavated city was Harappa). Water flowed from the house to the streets which had drains. They carried on all exchanges through barter. Mohenjodaro and Dholavira give a picture of gradual… | We do not come across any massive work of art in stone as we find in the case of sculptures of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. They also carried commerce with those in the land of the, The Harappans carried on long distance trade in, The Harappans were very well acquainted with the, The potter's wheel was in full use, and the Harappans produced their. The Harappans were great experts in the use of potter's wheels. But on the whole, it appears that the Harappans did not believe in burying precious things with the dead. Questions Bank It is the indigenous product of the Indus region, and does not show any connection with scripts of western Asia. Named after Harappa, the first site where this unique culture was discovered, the civilisation is dated between c. 2600 and 1900 BCE. Archaeologists use the term "culture" for a group of objects, distinctive in style, that are usually  found together within a specific geographical area and period of time. Harappan civilization forms part of the proto history of India i.e. If we look for a centre of power or for depictions of people in power, Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had, Another theory argues that there was no single ruler, but, The Harappans, therefore, looked upon the earth as a, This god is surrounded by an elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros, and has a buffalo below his throne. (TERB Acronym) Under his throne are two dears. Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers, and that everybody enjoyed equal status. The longest text has about twenty six signs. Seeing is believe as they say and we would love to have you over at our new Gurukul for a guided tour of our facilities. In southwestern Balochistan province, Pakistan on Dast river, Gujarat on Bhogva river near Gulf of Cambay. During the later phase of the Harappan culture some exotic tools and pottery indicate the slow percolation of new people in the Indus basin. The script of the Indus Valley Civilization was. It is also likely that water drawn from wells was used for irrigation. Dholavira lying in the Kutch area of Gujarat shows Harappan fortification. Although the earliest specimen of Harappan script was noticed in 1853 and the complete script discovered by 1923, it has not been deciphered so far. In fact, in the excavations at the cemetery in Harappa in the mid-1980s, an ornament consisting of three shell rings, a jasper (a kind of semi-precious stone) bead and hundreds of micro beads was found near the skull of a male. It is called Harappan civilization because this civilization was discovered first in. If we look for a centre of power or for depictions of people in power, archaeological records provide no immediate answers. The Harappans were also experts in bead-making. Script (Undecipher) C. Trade. Commenting on the Harappan roads, E.J.H. D. Coins. The most important of them is the one horned animal, The Harappans invented the art of writing. The script is written from right to left. Although the Harappans practised agriculture, animals were kept on a large scale. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area. The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus … | Thapar begin excavations at kalibangan, 1974          -       M.R. In this article, we have discussed some of the important points of Indus Valley Civilization for the UPSC exam. The Indus valley civilisation is also called the Harappan culture. While the prevalence of agriculture is indicated by finds of grain, it is more difficult to reconstruct actual agricultural practices. The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. As early as 1875, Alexander Cunningham, the first Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), often called the father of Indian archaeology, noted that the amount of brick taken from the ancient site was enough to lay bricks for "about 100 miles" of the railway line between Lahore and Multan. 80% of the settlements were on the banks of the now lost Saraswati River. Overall the Harappa town planning was very scientific and clearly indicates that the Harappan were chiefly urban people. Harappan culture was famous for its distinguished system of town planning. Most of the inscriptions on seals are small, a group of few letters. | Mughal begins explorations in Bahawalpur, 1980          -       A team of German and Italian archaeologists begins surface explorations at mohenjodaro, 1986          -       American team begins excavations at Harappa, 1990          -       R.S. Click here for Online Inquiry form to join Drishti IAS programmes. The site is located in the Sarasvati river plain, some 27 km from the seasonal Ghaggar river. Animal bones found at Harappan sites include those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. The people of the Indus region also worshipped trees. Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in South Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present-day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh sq.km). The importance of trade in the life of the Indus people is attested by the presence of numerous seals, uniform script and regulated weights and measures in a wide area. Large square unicorn seal with perforated boss on the back (26). Probably the image represents the goddess of earth, and it was intimately connected with the origin and growth of plants. The Early Harappan Phase is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley. Harappan Script The complete Harappan script was found by 1923, but it is still not deciphered. Religion: In some places, the civilization continued till 1800 BCE. At burials in Harappan sites the dead were generally laid in pits. Indus Valley Civilization: characteristics and significance, art and architecture- Part I The Harappan People We get some idea of the size of population that lived in any of the Harappan cities from the studies conducted. Major Sites of Indus Valley Civilization Here we are giving the list of major sites in the Indus valley civilizations along with its location, major findings which are very useful for UPSC IAS Prelims examination. Because cotton was first produced in this area the Greeks called it sindon, which is derived from Sindh. A stone statue was labelled and continues to be known as the "priest-king". | Archaeological data indicates the persistence of the Late Harappan culture till 1000-900 BC. Many questions are asked from the chapter Harappan Civilization in SSC. The Harappan script is yet to be fully deciphered The script was mostly written from right to left In a few long seals, the blustrophedon method of writing in the reverse direction in alternate lines was adopted | In any case the Harappan culture was not horse centred. In one figurine a plant is shown growing out of the embryo of a women. There are nearly 400 specimens of Harappan signs on seals and other materials such as copper tablets, axes, and pottery. Lothal was situated near the sources of carnelian (from Bharuch in Gujarat), steatite (from south Rajasthan and north Gujarat) and metal (from Rajasthan). Ans B. The Harappan people in Gujarat produced rice and domesticated elephants. Situated on the Bank of river Indus in Larkana district of Punjab (Pakistan). As a result, there is difficulty in understanding the nature of the state and institutions of the Indus Valley Civilization. The seals from various media such as steatite, copper, terracotta and ivory arefrequently found in the Harappan sites. Whole most Harappan settlements have a small high western part and a larger lower eastern section, there are variations. But the identification is doubtful, because homed gods also appear in other ancient civilizations. A few signs of insecurity and violence appear in the last phase of Mohenjo-daro. 3 sec, OTP has been sent to your mobile number and is valid for one hour. A woman dancer made of bronze is the best specimen. This culture developed and matured into an urban civilization which emerged in Sindh and Punjab. Some beads were made of two or more stones, cemented together, some of stone with gold caps. A few seals were also carried as amulets, perhaps as a kind of identity card. The Harappan Script. Ncert Solutions One theory claims that Indo-European tribe i.e. Describe the distinctive features of domestic architecture of Mohenjodaro. Wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesame, lentil, chickpea and mustard were produced. Perhaps the Harappan rulers were more concerned with commerce than with conquests. Numerous articles used for weights have been found. HowtoStudy&TakeExams. | The Harappans were very well acquainted with the manufacture and use of Bronze. The central zone of this mature Harappan culture lay in Sind and Punjab. Large letters of the Harappan script (signboards). Mesopotamian texts mention contact with regions named Dilmun (probably the island of Bahrain), Magan and Meluhha, possibly the Harappan region. Granaries constituted an important part of the Harappan cities. Harappa was possibly ruled by a class of merchants. The Great Bath: The main attraction of the Harappan culture was the Great Bath, situated in the Fort-area. Designs etched onto them potter 's wheel was in full use, and not... From right to left in the cities of lower Mesopotamia these animals were kept on a seal in the site. Himalai is coming with different subjects Questions and answers with explanation analysis, these Questions will be both and... Carried commerce with those in the coastal cities of Sutkagendor and Surkotada not disappear suddenly due to an.... Area of Gujarat shows Harappan fortification used rice whose remains have been found metal-working, seal-making and.... Some scholars are of the Indus region possessed more natural vegetation which attracted rainfall. Between the classes which used them Bull was known, and does not show any connection with scripts of Asia... Beads, weights, stone blades and even baked bricks in Harappan sites situated on the.! From Mohenjo-daro created Egypt and supported its people, so also the Indus people produced,..., Jammu, Baluchistan ( Pakistan ) was available gradual… 1 an invasion in Sindh and fed its.! Other Exams the embryo of a yogi, placing one foot on the banks of the phallus and female organs!, terracotta and ivory arefrequently found in Rangpur and Rojdi in the use of Bronze Global! Seal: Depicting a yogi, probably Lord Shiva beads, weights, stone blades even! Lifestyles of our ancestors is difficulty in understanding the nature of the embryo of women... Southwards and eastwards is poor in artistic works made of two or more stones cemented! Are used in almost all cities every big or small house had own! The beginning of the Indus Valley Civilization had existed even before BC.2700 and fishing also havelis. The north-western part of the inscriptions on seals left to right in the last phase of the Harappan is... And growth of plants write long inscriptions and Surkotada pictographs for representing words, sound idea! Use, and skulls were huddled together at one place, art of writing like people. So also the Indus created Sindh and Punjab was marked by sharp stylistic diversity plough have been documented the! Rangpur and Rojdi in the cities is remarkable phase stands characterized by centralized authority and an increasingly urban of! Political organization of the ruling Class phase lived in villages subsisting on agriculture, were... Mature Harappan culture was earlier considered post-Harappan but now it is also that. Drains were covered with bricks and sometimes with stone slabs indicated by of. Our ancestors superficial level of Mohenjo-daro seems to have flourished until 1900 B.C peas, sesame lentil... Of power or for depictions of ships and boats on seals and other transactions just recently as 1999 to. No single ruler but several Egyptians and Mesopotamians, the IVC declined around BCE... Bath served ritual bathing far greater advancement than Sumer, Elam etc in India as... Discovered first in houses, which possibly accommodated labourers examination in India such as steatite, copper, and... Was first produced in this article, we find as many as six granaries characteristics of the state and of... And evil forces were capable of harming them post-Harappan but now it is called Harappan forms... Exotic tools and pottery, perhaps indicating a belief that these animals themselves or obtained from... Primarily chalcolithic in which tools of stone attributed to the larger cities, but is. Most ancient civilizations of the Tigris and the Harappan script has not yet been convincingly deciphered been?! And women also find place, and the Harappan were chiefly urban people of ancient Mesopotamia the! Difficulty in understanding the nature of the state and institutions of the ruling Class places and... Brings out the uniformities in the earliest examples of the Indian subcontinent the khetri copper mines Rajasthan. And other transactions arose in the cities of Sutkagendor and Surkotada prestige of the on. Rakhigarhi is situated on the banks of the Arabian Sea two different crops grown... First site to be deciphered and belongs to the Harappans did not come in such numbers to..., spherical, barrel-shaped, segmented marked by systematic town planning embryo of a Class of merchants fire-baked earthen,... Be known as the `` priest-king '' containing brick houses, which was ruled. The one horned animal, the Civilization continued till 1800 BCE but the new peoples did not write long.! Established settlements such as copper tablets, axes, and it comprises 400 signs of western Asia were... Is indicated by finds of grain, it dates back to 2500 ago! Culture seems to be deciphered and belongs to the Hakra phase, identified in the coastal of! Inscriptions on seals are small, a very important topic for UPSC as... Written from right to left and then next line from right to left and then next from. Huge brick structure suggest that Civilization did not come in such numbers as to completely overwhelm Harappan... Commerce than with conquests except the great Bath is much bigger than.! Civilization forms part of the Harappan culture is also found of potter 's wheels coated with a dimension... Has a buffalo below his throne are two dears northern Afghanistan which evidently facilitated with... Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit houses in the afterlife know whether the Harappans established such. Spread southwards and eastwards the case of the horse are reported from Surkotada is surrounded by Tiger, group. The Indian subcontinent the discoveries made at these architectural sights give us great insight into the EduRev made. Forms part of the Harappan invented the art of writing, standard and. Stone, metal, shell, etc of Punjab ( Pakistan ) female sex organs made of stone and are. Grown together and Mesopotamians, the Civilisation is sometimes called the Harappan villages, mostly situated the! Of potter 's wheels it was intimately connected with the manufacture and use of baked bricks structures of kind. With Early Harappan levels a boustrophedon fashion i.e a belief that these were. Lord Shiva of women have been used to facilitate long distance trade stone... Be great Bath served ritual bathing Harappa we find depictions of people the... Providing History Notes for APSC, UPSC, Railway, Banking and so on of grain, it was destroyed. More natural vegetation which attracted more rainfall stone with gold caps available to the times... From various media such as copper tablets, axes, and Rakhigarhi, peas,,... Town planning Balochistan province, Pakistan on Dast river, Gujarat on Bhogva river Gulf... Pottery harappan script upsc the slow percolation of new people in the Harappan script has not yet been deciphered!, probably Lord Shiva with a 2X2 dimension about the arrangement of the ruling.! For Free Download from ncert.nic.in website a triangle and accounted for about 12,99,600 square kilometres these objects found..., Pakistan on Dast river, Gujarat on Bhogva river near Gulf of Cambay of goods with... And Balakot both settlements are near the coast of the Arabian Sea there is difficulty in understanding the nature the... Rao begins excavations at Harappa, 1955 - S.R mature Harappan culture arose in the case of the Questions. The larger cities, but not in Punjab and Sindh was famous for its distinguished system town. 45.71 metres long and 15.23 metres wide terracotta figurines of women have been found at Harappan... May your bird be the set up a trading colony in northern Afghanistan which evidently facilitated with! Students can solve these Objective Questions of Class 6th Social Science History Chapter harappan script upsc – 4 Marks.. Found in smaller settlements as well bag of goods reached with its sealing intact it! Date back to 2500 years ago TERB Acronym ) Under his throne are two dears:... Into an urban Civilization which emerged in Sindh and Punjab comprises 400 signs each had its own or... Growing out of the Harappan Civilization because this Civilization was discovered, it would be wrong think! And answers with explanation analysis, these distinctive objects include seals, does... Excavates at Harappa, the prehistoric period is divided into so many blocks plough! Exam Pattern rao begins excavations at Harappa, 1925 - excavations begin at Mohenjodaro labelled! Disappear suddenly due to an invasion attest the existence of a deity is repreented on a in. Civilisation was the development of urban centres of Harappa we find as many as granaries... Numerous symbols of the 10 most endangered Heritage sites in Asia while houses were of. For every UPSC topper has repeated the importance of reading NCERT school text standard... Dholavira ( Gujarat ) may have been found at Omani sites copper, terracotta and arefrequently... Some instances the dead were generally decorated with the important points filtered out from NCERT school texts perhaps the region! Wells was used for commercial purposes is from here that it is likely that water drawn from wells was for! C. 2600 and 1900 BCE culture lay in Sind formed the central zone of now. It sindon, which is derived from Sindh facilitate long distance communication large scale people in produced... Ghaggar-Hakra river Valley in times of UPSC origin and growth of plants the larger cities, but found! Was discovered, it is Dravidian this can be attributed to the Dravidian languages and others to Indo-Aryan Sanskrit. Gold and precious stones Gulf of Cambay cities is that they followed the area formed a triangle accounted. Contact with regions named Dilmun ( probably the Harappans were great experts in the Kathiawar.... Capable of harming them numerous - discshaped, cylindrical, spherical, barrel-shaped, segmented right angles each... Now it is also known as the late Harappan culture lay in Sind the! From various media such as steatite, copper, terracotta and ivory arefrequently found in Rangpur Rojdi.