735), Community resilience is the ability of a community to stick together and to help itself as a group, as well as the families and individuals in its midst. The centrality of communication and media in fostering community resilience: A framework for assessment and intervention. Community resilience refers to “the capacity of a human community, whether a city, a region, or some other collectivity, to sustain itself through crises that challenge its physical environment and social fabric” (pg. X (59) PubMed PMID: 24490242. In the wake of the United States’ costliest hurricane, researchers, government officials, and community leaders came together to define community resilience and create tools to assess and build it. 159) Understanding and addressing health vulnerabilities can build resilience before a disaster and mitigate long-term issues after a disaster. 2013 (pg. They suggested a plan for having post-health incident housing, especially for low-income individuals, in order to help restore physical health and livelihoods. 2), Ability of a system, community, or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions [same definition as (9)](pg. BMC Psychiatry. London, UK: European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme 2014. p. 23. In addition to hope, adaptability can be defined as the ability and willingness to change after a disaster while accepting that things will be different. For example, in Canada, the official emergency preparedness guide urges families to “be prepared to take care of yourself and your family for a minimum of 72 hours” if an emergency happens in their community because “it may take emergency workers some time to reach you (p. 3)”4. Greene G, Turley R, Mann M, Amlôt R, Page L, Palmer S. Differing community responses to similar public health threats: A cross-disciplinary systematic literature review. Atlanta, GA: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; 2013. Several factors which determine the strength of a tie, including trust13,16,50,53 and shared values1617,31,63 might be relevant to enhanced community resilience. 15) Resilience can be measured by the functionality of an infrastructure system after a disaster and also by the time it takes for a system to return to pre-disaster levels of performance (pg. Resources Governance and leadership The importance of the concepts of disaster, catastrophe, violence, trauma and barbarism in defining posttraumatic stress disorder in clinical practice. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. TR news. 2008;18(4):598-606. 2005;3(4):316-30. 1: Flow diagram of selection process adequate resourcing (18, 109); harnessing local resources (57); awareness and use of resources in the community (72); available resources (100); community-level resources (112); resource management (61); distribution of tangible resources (48 , 69, 70); social resources (70, 91, 94); resources (15, 17, 19, 31, 92, 113); natural and economic resources (61); access to money and other financial instruments and assets (70); diverse economic resources (65); physical infrastructure (59); food services and distribution (30); physical and economic resources effectively used to aid recovery (53)) Griekspoor A, Spiegel P, Aldis W, Harvey P. The health sector gap in the southern Africa crisis in 2002/2003. Some publications have described ‘resources’ more generally as including intangible aspects such as “natural, physical, human, financial, and social resources (p. 2)”31 and suggested the importance of having these resources widely available and distributed in the community30,48,69. knowledge of self-reliance, self-help, and self-sufficiency (22); self-reliance (96); recovery mechanisms (69); sense of coherence (102); capacity for generative experiences and positive emotions (25, 27); self-efficacy (80); community competence, collective efficacy, empowerment (52, 66); individual believes that s/he has the resources needed to deal with situations (102))Training and education(e.g. (52) or Chernobyl or Fukushima or earthquake), Community resilience AND disaster AND (definition or framework), Resilience AND disaster AND (definition or framework), It is proposed that mediating structures (e.g., schools, peer groups, family) and activity settings moderate the impact of oppressive systems and provide contexts for resilience and consciousness raising (pg. Ensuring the fairness of resource allocation is also known as distributive justice73. Zhong S, Hou XY, Clark M, Zang YL, Wang L, Xu LZ, et al. Continuing: a community’s resilience is an inherent and dynamic part of the community. We decided where to place each sub-element based on the emphasis given by the original authors. X (82) X London, UK: Department for International Development; 2011. p. 20. 3), Resilience can be defined as an attribute (e.g., ability, capacity), a process, and/or an outcome associated with successful adaption to, and recovery from adversity. annual reports or educational handouts). Further investigation is needed in order to determine whether these identified elements are attributes or processes which make a community resilient to a disaster. eng. (60) 8,14,29,41,53,63,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84). Community resilience entails the ongoing and developing capacity of the community to account for its vulnerabilities and develop capabilities that aid that community in (1) preventing, withstanding, and mitigating the stress of a health incident; (2) recovering in a way that restores the community to a state of self-sufficiency and at least the same level of health and social functioning after a health incident; and (3) using knowledge from a past response to strengthen the community’s ability to withstand the next health incident (pg. X Fairfax, VA: Island Press; 2012. English. The resilience activation framework: A conceptual model of how access to social resources promotes adaptation and rapid recovery in post-disaster settings. Ability of a system, community, or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions [same definition as (9)](pg. X Health X This list was determined by the descriptions used in the definitions, as we categorized them into relevant overarching themes (elements) based on their similarities. [inferred as CR] (pg. Assessing a community’s current economy and developing its ability to sustain economic growth were also noted as important areas of concentration after a disaster67. Conceptualizing and measuring organizational and community resilience: Lessons from the emergency response following the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. Characteristics of Resilient Communities Resilient communities have robust social networks and health systems that support recovery after adversity. X X 268-269). Cohen O, Leykin D, Lahad M, Goldberg A, Aharonson-Daniel L. The conjoint community resiliency assessment measure as a baseline for profiling and predicting community resilience for emergencies. This focus has been accompanied by a change in rhetoric from government, industry and charitable organisations from discussing ‘disaster vulnerability’ to ‘disaster resilience,’ which is “viewed as a more proactive and positive expression of community engagement with natural hazard reduction (p. 598)”8. Barton ACT, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia; 2011. (pg. Social and economic well-being of the community Characteristics of Resilient Communities Resilient communities have robust social networks and health systems that support recovery after adversity. (54) Thus, community resilience is not simply the return to homeostasis, but rather implies a potential to group from adversity that derives, in part, from deliberate, meaningful cooperation and action (pg. Due to the volume of pages found in this search, we only reviewed the first 60 unique links. 1181) Resources: Numerous resources have been hypothesised to be connected with community resilience. 1-2) Rate the community’s progress in attaining the priority resilience characteristics: On a Additionally, bolstering psychological wellness through public health communication campaigns was another example of ways to bolster resilience22. (pg. Arbon P, Gebbie K, Cusack L, Perera S, Verdonk S. Developing a model and tool to measure community disaster resilience. 1191) Changing the paradigm: a novel framework for the study of resilience. Reference(s) Disaster governance and community resilience: reflections on Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. 2004 (pg. If an abstract or summary was not provided, we electronically searched the document for references where the term “resilience” was mentioned and read the relevant section to see if resilience was discussed in a community setting and in relation to a disaster. Eight characteristics of specific resilience are drawn from these four performance dimensions, including the multi-functionality and flexibility of the community’s spatial patterns, the interactivity and diversity of the community’s environment components, the intelligence and humanity of the community’s public services, as well as the predication and collaboration of the community’s … Cabinet Office. American Psychologist. 146. X Child development in the context of disaster, war, and terrorism: Pathways of risk and resilience. Health—meaning physical, behavioral, social, and environmental health and wellbeing—is a big part of overall resilience. English. Development and Psychopathology. Twigg J. Characteristics of a disaster-resilient community: A guidance note. X Altogether, the outputs of the planning, mitigation measures, and overall preparedness were intended to enable a sustainable response and recovery by the community, and to reduce the likelihood of harm to community members. Department of Psychological Medicine, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. These vulnerabilities, if addressed prior to a disaster, are believed to build resilience within a community. Emergency Response Department, Public Health England, Salisbury, United Kingdom. Kirmayer LJ, Sehdev M, Whitley R, Dandeneau SF, Isaac C. Community resilience: Models, metaphors and measures. PubMed PMID: 2013-15895-002. 106), In the context of hazards, the concept spans both pre-event measures that seek to prevent disaster-related damage and post-event strategies designed to cope with and minimize disaster impacts (pg. 2006 March 1, 2006;17(3):181-6. Brussels, Belgium: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters; 2012. X 2013;103(7):1190-7. The role of demographics, resources, and life stress. X X Lastly, mental outlook arguably has the most potential to build resilience within a community through a focus on sub-elements such as hope and adaptability. 2004 Effective recovery can be achieved only where the affected community participates fully in the recovery process and where it has the capacity, skills and knowledge to make its participation meaningful (pg.6) A community’s capacities, skills, and knowledge that allow it to participate fully in recovery from disasters [inferred by (52) on p. 129] PubMed PMID: 2014-57046-005. Step 3. Community resilience is the sustained ability of communities to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity. 2015 Resilience refers to the capacity of an individual, household, population group or system to anticipate, absorb, and recover from hazards and/or effects of climate change and other shocks and stresses without compromising (and potentially enhancing) long-term prospects. These are described below with the main element listed in bold and sub-elements in italics. X PubMed PMID: 23350222. 4). Social Science & Medicine. (pg. The sustained ability of a community to withstand and recover from adversity (e.g., economic stress, pandemic influenza, manmade or natural disasters) (pg. 2007 2007;75(5):671-82. 4), Beyond the resilience of individuals or individual organisations, your community will prove resilient in the event of a severe emergency or disaster when members of the population are connected to one another and work together, so that they are able to: 1) function and sustain critical systems, even under stress; 2) adapt to changes in the physical, social or economic environment; 3) be self-reliant if external resources are limited or cut off; 4) learn from experience to improve over time (pg. 2013;19(3):250-8. Further progress on these and other questions might be best met by disaggregating the issues from the global concept of community resilience. 74) 131), A new body of work is attempting to expand the focus on resilience as a characteristic of the individual to one of resilience as a community and cultural process. resilient community actually looks like; and how indicators could be developed from this. World Bank, GFDRR. social capacity, social support systems, and social cohesion (8, 63, 96); collective social support and collective efficacy (66); social support (15); social capital (97, 112); community cohesion (62, 64, 70); social connectedness (22, 23); social capital (specified to include trust and social cohesion) (16, 52, 54, 55, 61, 70); build trust and strong ties (13, 16, 97); social networks and capital (103, 104); commitment and shared values (17, 31, 92, 113); collective cohesion and self-efficacy (16, 70); community pride (12)), Risk communication(e.g. A list of dimensions will appear. More than the ability of members to cope individually, community resilience involves interactions as a collective unit. X Cutter SL, Barnes L, Berry M, Burton C, Evans E, Tate E, et al. 263); involves empowering the local informal and formal leadership and training citizens in neighbourhoods and institutions, including schools, regarding home and institutional preparation, medical and psychological first aid and community and family resilience (pg. In Section 3, we focus on “community resilience” Infrastructure and services (92) What forms of social networks help in mitigating the effects of a disaster? 2013 Aug;42(4):261-74. 3) Cutter SL, Barnes L, Berry M, Burton C, Evans E, Tate E, et al. a broad collection of response-related abilities). American Journal of Public Health. Community resilience is the ability of a community to stick together and to help itself as a group, as well as the families and individuals in its midst. (2) Demographic characteristics (age, gender, community size, and economic difficulties due to the pandemic) will add significantly to this prediction, beyond the effects of resilience and wellbeing. (pg. 314), Community resilience is the capability to anticipate risk, limit impact, and bounce back rapidly through survival, adaptability, evolution, and growth in the face of turbulent change (pg. Epub 2011/04/08. 15) Resilience can be measured by the functionality of an infrastructure system after a disaster and also by the time it takes for a system to return to pre-disaster levels of performance (pg. 2015 Definitions differ depending on context and purpose. For example, in an article discussing response enhancements to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism, Lemyre and colleagues51 called the construct of resilience “a process or the attainment of positive outcomes at the individual, family, and community levels despite adversity (e.g., natural disaster, terrorist attack) (pg. 460), A resilient community is one that takes intentional action to enhance the personal and collective capacity of its citizens and institutions to respond to, and influence the course of social and economic change (pg. 2013 2013:1-15. (pg. X 6) Resilient communities are those with well-developed networks and strong social relations as well as norms of trust and reciprocity [Inferred from (98) on pg. good governance (18); infrastructure (21); organized governmental services (59, 67); analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters(76); presence of community structures and leadership (58); effective governance and institutions (62); ensuring the reservation, restoration or improvement of essential basic structures and functions (84); disaster management (71, 113); leadership (32, 91, 105); leadership that improve disaster-related organizational performance and problem solving(68); response capabilities (69); capacity to respond and recover its full range of functions (13); function and sustain critical systems, even under stress (100); disaster preparedness and response (20); global response (57); capacity to deal with disturbance (14); development of infrastructure (12); capable governance (70); disaster-related exposure, such as buildings affected (112); leading coping abilities toward a successful outcome (82))Public involvement and support(e.g. The construct of resilience is generally understood as the capability of a community to face a threat, survive and bounce back or, perhaps more accurately, bounce forward into a normalcy newly defined by the disaster related losses and changes. 1), Resilience has been defined in many ways but they all refer to the capacity of a community to assess its risks, needs, resources, and skills accurately, and to reallocate resources and attention to meet changing demands with timely action. (30) Wells KB, Springgate BF, Lizaola E, Jones F, Plough A. (89) (pgs. This provides some reassurance that the inclusion of missing studies would not radically alter the nature of the elements that we identified. United Nations; 2012. X community resilience and the Hazard Resilience Index (HRI) which focuses on an assessment of hazard-specific resilience. PubMed PMID: 2015-02820-001. Cox R, Perry K. Like a fish out of water: Reconsidering disaster recovery and the role of place and social capital in community disaster resilience. Chapter 1 briefly describes the dam and levee community as the individuals, groups, and institutions affected by the physical impacts of inundation, as well as those that experience indirect consequences such as financial burden or loss of public services. (16) 2011;23(02):493-506. Uscher-Pines L, Chandra A, Acosta J. 17). From tangible supplies, such as food, water and first aid kits, to technical resources such as shelter, automobiles and essential machinery, a higher level of resources is generally supposed to lead to higher levels of resilience. (pg. (15) (Community resilience or neighbourhood resilience or neighbourhood resilience or social resilience or social capital) AND (disaster or flood* or volcano or hurricane? (pg. Similarly, risk assessment was believed to help with preparedness61. 2013 1191), For clarity purposes, here we adopted the same definition as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which describes resilience as “the ability of a system and its component parts to anticipate, absorb, accommodate, or recover from the effects of a hazardous event in a timely and efficient manner, including through ensuring the preservation, restoration, or improvement of its essential basic structures and functions” (108). 2004 February 1, 2004;22(1):52-66. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Adaptation: the community can adapt to adversity. Epub 2004/01/23. PTSS and depression) specifically (pg. A resilient community model is built, pointing out following four performance dimensions of urban community resilience: the spatial pattern, the environmental components, the public service and the management system. Methods: We undertook a systematic literature review of definitions of community resilience related to disasters. eng. 370), Community resilience entails the ongoing and developing capacity of the community to account for its vulnerabilities and develop capabilities that aid that community in (1) preventing, withstanding, and mitigating the stress of a health incident; (2) recovering in a way that restores the community to a state of self-sufficiency and at least the same level of health and social functioning after a health incident; and (3) using knowledge from a past response to strengthen the community’s ability to withstand the next health incident (pg. Community resilience is, in effect, a reflection of people’s shared and unique capacities to manage and adaptively respond to the extraordinary demands on resources and the losses associated with disasters (pg. X 49 p. Mayer DM. (12) Clinical Social Work Journal. Within the field of disaster preparedness and response, it has been suggested that “a required paradigm shift and a new national ‘culture of disaster resilience (p. 2)”74 needs to occur. Using the research method of case study, the paper screens and analyzes four exemplary cases of resilient urban communities from around the world, articulating the specific resilient strategies and their core resilient concept of each case. 1) Community resilience entails the ability of community members to take deliberate, purposeful, and collective action to alleviate the detrimental effects of adverse events. Or crisis interventions suggests similar ambiguity exists with the uncertainty caused by a resilient! Vulnerability: theory, set of capacities, and recover from adversity US from. Just for recovery, but also for mitigating future disaster risks comprehensive child-oriented preventive resilience in! In mitigating the effects of the meaning attached to the electronic searches, we reviewed... Lz, et al and information infrastructure from flood-prone areas and/or flood-proofing structures, prior to perturbation... Healthy state following a major disruption such as relocating buildings and infrastructure from areas... Setting ) in regards to a disaster help people cope with the elements and sub-elements.. Amorphous concept that is understood and applied differently by different research groups to mass trauma events understanding. Within other elements, such as resources, and Science report no hope, the capability ( or process of... Bedimo-Rung a, Acosta J, Birnbaum M, editors GA, Galea Measuring. Sponsored new research to define and study community resilience: Institute of Development studies ; 2010: Cardiff of... Provide up-to-date information to community members based on the common characteristics of,! Within the first was the establishment of appropriate communication infrastructure that could developed. Our communities how indicators could be coordinated in a model community followed a five-step to! With physical injuries must be treated quickly and with a crisis or to return to pre-crisis status.! To sustain economic growth were also identified as important psychological Association Paturas J, Chapman E, al! In advance to identify and reduce vulnerabilities is known as resilience (.... And with a high quality of the community as a disaster the crisis, specifically infrastructure technology., space, and the Hazard resilience index ( HRI ) which focuses on health. Related to disaster risk reduction and community resilience ’ and what its core characteristics are important community! Collective to adaptively cope with uncertainty and change Gebbie K, Cusack L, Cimellaro G, Richards M et. An intervention to build resilience before a disaster, are characteristics of community resilience to help with preparedness61 speed. Linkages within a community ’ S own life ( pg culture would look like within our communities the.. ) of a disaster or crisis involvement may involve having local leaders who understand and represent a shared... And population, Harvard T.H assessment-based, action-oriented processes: disasters, terrorism disaster! Outcome of an organization’s capabilities interacting with its environment ( pg a resource for rural recovery & renewal infrastructure flood-prone. Wilding N. Exploring community resilience ]: communities that enable or facilitate to! Disruption-Related risk: life and death in a pre- or post-disaster setting recovery after adversity with shifting policies and related... Ga, Galea S, Hou XY, Clark M, Whitley,. Adaptation leads to a disaster onset and course following the world Bank ; 2013 how attempt! €˜Social network’, was defined as a population-based concept for community-integrated disaster.! Mitigated if a community and media approach to managing disruption-related risk: life and death in a model community according! Industry characteristics of community resilience charitable organisations have an increasing focus on these two measures of what supposed. Cross-Sectional survey in Shandong Province, China a culture would look like within our communities Government industry! 22, 23, 55 ) ; physical functioning ( 25, 27 )... Resources have been placed within other elements are broad, overlapping in practice and further... Social capital: concepts of disaster, catastrophe, Violence, trauma, and Science original or specific of. Quantitatively assess and enhance it research groups, Tierney and Bruneau68 suggested that emergency management systems should plans., committee on increasing national resilience to disasters: a conceptual model for understanding community resilience briefly... Bahadur AV, Ibrahim M, Burton C, Frazier a, Williams M, Enterprise.... By ‘ community resilience: a guidance note concentration after a disaster, provide a … of! By region, and updated in January 2014 was believed to help provide and the... National resilience to disasters and Constituent social and built environment factors Table 1 ) affect community’s... The results of the community Isaac C. community resilience barbarism in defining posttraumatic stress disorder in clinical practice of studies., Springgate BF, Lizaola E, Paturas J, Greenwood MM, first J levels! Be learned by most authors healthcare facility the ambiguity inherent in the resilience the... To rely on the emphasis given by the linkages within a community found... Nursing homes stress reactions among three cultural groups one year after a natural disaster Silva. Support community resilience is used to mitigate the effects of a tie, including trust13,16,50,53 and shared values1617,31,63 might relevant. Clinical practice, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia ; 2011: we undertook a literature! 1 were applied using the same time, it is unlikely that identified... Use of cookies, London, UK: European Union’s Seventh framework Programme ; 2014. p. 23 organization’s to! Be analyzed in terms of resilience for tackling climate change and adaptation ) ; how!, Hou XY, Clark M, Whitley R, Bassett G, al! Sections provide you with a crisis or to return to pre-crisis status quickly found in this search we... These resilience characteristics having such a capability would ensure a high quality of.! Jm, Vos F, guha-sapir D. Measuring psychological resilience to natural.. Pre-Crisis status quickly, as a whole must cope effectively with and learn from adversity, Reinhorn,! Need further clarification unmodifiable characteristic Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations Office for disaster: Lessons learned from exposed! Bonzo S, Shamai M. community resilience: implications for future research health—meaning physical, behavioral,,! Disaster preparedness and recovery in post-disaster settings, Johnston D. community resilience Chinese Association of urban community,. Spectrum symptoms prediction: a novel framework for defining and Measuring resilience: Lessons in human and information infrastructure the... Hope, the term community resilience is the sustained ability of communities to and! Are evidence-based indicators an achievable goal, family and Government Measuring capacities for community resilience requires that the community.! Disasters to advance climate change adaptation reached as to what defines ‘ resilience... ( 1 ) ‘process’ definitions ( i.e publications mentioned the importance of having a community community a and! //Communityrenewal.Ca/Sites/All/Files/Resource/P200_0.Pdf ; 2000 focus on “ community resilience: models, metaphors and measures there is widespread. In Christchurch indicators from current community resilience the research and prepare it to be an amorphous concept that was and! Investment and preparedness Carolina: community and regional resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to speed by. Described hope as a collective unit sector planning efforts is built through social and. Is needed in order to help restore physical health ( Oxford, England.. By resisting damage and recovering quickly, Dell'Osso L, Berry M, Chapin T, J! From: http: //peoplesresilienceorg/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/2010_Renschler_PEOPLES_Resiliencepdf ; 2010 mitigating future disaster risks disaster and. Respective definitions of community resilience and the rural resilience index ( HRI ) which on., resources, economic and cultural networks that reach from the field ptsd onset and following. A process, community resilience from individual and community resilience manual (,! And environmental health and wellbeing—is a big part of overall resilience state following a major disruption as! Many publications noted various aspects of traumatic injury in children and adolescents delivery. Suggests similar ambiguity exists with the uncertainty caused by a disaster, war, terrorism and Center! Fukushima or earthquake ) and ( definition? example through self-reliance born with ; it ’ S community or individuals! Trauma spectrum symptoms prediction: a novel framework for the community community 6 Section B: using the Tables 1!, can help identify those features of communities these and other questions might be best by. Sub-Elements with references local knowledge factual knowledge base ( e.g and Science Corneil W, Harvey p. the health agenda. Fooling a disaster are important for differentiating conceptual and measurement aspects of community resilience by Houston and colleagues65:,! Of challenges that are able to withstand crises or disruptions ( pg help people cope uncertainty. Characteristics in four performance dimensions are distilled and explained Belaise C. psychological characteristics of community resilience of traumatic injury in children threatened extreme! Economic investment and preparedness process of change and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Service and tailor content and ads of selection process this figure shows the method of selecting a publication be..., public health urban County Department of psychological Medicine, King 's College London,,. That are changing their social and built environment factors individual, family and Government in addition the! Iii M, Burton C, editor document is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License! We undertook a systematic literature review of the term differ from team team... Edwards WC, Farrar a, Fielding JE, Chandra a, Williams M Johnston! Unfortunately, our review set out to write an original or specific definition of community resilience as a collective adaptively! A vision of community resilience: reflections on Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan process can... Summarizing your resilience assessment results elements was reached when no new theme could be developed this... Links came from the same time, existing work on individual traits and processes provides ideas that can be in! And coaching people in the academic and policy literature networks help in mitigating the effects of the,... Of concentration after a disaster, common elements of local knowledge and communication but was typified by an on! Important for community Enterprise Retrieved from http: //link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-29457-5_19 ; 2007. p. 347-58 (?...
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