Dissatisfaction with the Roman Canon and architectural functionalism. When I went to be trained in the Tridentine Mass, I was extremely surprised to be told that Eucharistic Prayer II was created at a restaurant. The anaphoras are addressed by the Church to the Father, even if in antiquity there were cases of Eucharistic prayers addressed to Christ, as the anaphora of Gregory Nazianzen or partially the Third Anaphora of St. Peter (Sharar). Eucharistic Prayer n. 3: it is a new composition that uses the Antiochene structure filled with Alexandrine and Roman themes. Because of these differences, it is essential that eucharistic liturgy be studied from ahistorical perspective. Theology of the Eucharist 1. i. It may be used whenever a Mass does not have a proper preface; its use is particularly suited to a congregation of people with a more developed knowledge of Scripture. The congregation and choir respond: "Amen. These questions are the subject matter of this essay. In the East the more ancient text is probably the ancient form of the Anaphora of Addai and Mari, followed by the East Syriac Rite La Crosse, WI, 54602-0385 The present Roman canon sins in a number of ways against those requirements of good liturgical composition and sound liturgical sense that were emphasized by the Second Vatican Council. And the shortest Eucharistic Prayer is II. The Eucharist: Origins Voice of the Faithful® Page 3 of 12 to the participants. The rest of the anaphora consists of a lengthy set of intercessions for the Church, its bishops and other clergy, the leaders of nations, the faithful departed, and the Church as a whole, as well as commemorations of the Saints, especially the Blessed Virgin Mary, John the Baptist, the saint being commemorated that day, and "Forefathers, Fathers, Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Preachers, Evangelists, Martyrs, Confessors, Ascetics, and for every righteous spirit in faith made perfect." 24. It can make this contribution: the clarification of this or that point, and it is also useful to strengthen courage for a true reform. The Preface to Sarapion’s Eucharistic prayer bears resemblance in its cadence and rhythm to extant Gnostic anaphoras. I would like to argue that there is a connection between this dissatisfaction and 20th-century architectural functionalism. The Apostolic See will set forth the norms to be observed in each case. 6. (Hereafter cited as DOL). Over the last 15 years, the Monastery di San Benedetto has grown, attracting new vocations and pilgrims from around the world. 3) Eucharistic Prayer III may be used with any of the prefaces; like the Roman Canon, it is to have precedence on Sundays and holydays. Notitiae 13 (1977) 555-556 (DOL, #251, pp.634-635) and Notitiae 17 (1981) 23. The Netherlands received permission on August 16, 1974 for a new Eucharistic Prayer on the occasion of a Pastoral Colloquium held November 1, 1974. Although it is provided with its own Preface, this Eucharistic Prayer may also be used with other Prefaces, especially those that present an overall view of the mystery of salvation, … Bugnini remarks that the value of the vote was “quite relative” because the Fathers were not voting as actual representatives of their episcopal conferences, but as individual bishops (Bugnini, p.351). Pope Paul VI granted an audience to the Cardinal Prefect on April 20th, issuing a written response a month later, on May 23, 1972, in which he forbade publicity about the discussion in progress, but gave authorization for a draft text to be prepared of an Instruction on Eucharistic Prayers. The Holy Father ordered the schema to be sent to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Congregation of Rites (June, 1967). There are at least seventy-two Maronite Anaphorae. The other three Eucharistic prayers in the Roman Missal are of later origin, and they reflect the historical evolution of the anaphora, or canon, of the Mass in various parts of the Roman Empire. On the contrary the Western Church had for centuries only one anaphora, the Roman Canon, but it has variable parts according to the liturgical year, mainly the Preface. 18 “Au cours des derniers mois,” Notitiae 4 (1968) 148-155; DOL #244, pp.614-619. note 6. On the contrary, work proceeded full steam ahead and in a plenary meeting of the entire Congregation for Divine Worship, the schema for the Eucharistic Prayers was examined and the matter was put to a vote (Bugnini, pp. Furthermore, they were not originally equipped with modern conveniences like indoor plumbing and electricity, and so we moderns sometimes find such houses inconvenient. According to Archbishop Annibale Bugnini, longtime secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship, “This kind of variety seems needed if the Roman liturgy is to have the greater spiritual and pastoral riches that cannot find full expression in a single type of text” (Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy, p.452). As an Italian liturgical scholar puts it: “its use today is so minimal as to be statistically irrelevant”.1. Thus, we can also view the Eucharistic Prayer … In order to achieve a resolution of the difficulties, it was proposed to experiment with three revised forms of the Roman Canon (Bugnini, p.343). If the Roman canon were once again to have pride of place, then the other Eucharistic Prayers could be used as supplementary or auxiliary anaphoras, for the sake of variety, according to pastoral need. 5. The Sanctus. 6. The Consilium, therefore returned to the subject of the Eucharistic Prayer a couple of months later, presenting a new request to Paul VI on May 25, 1966: If the time comes to reopen the question of composing a new Eucharistic Prayer (in view of the difficulties that mark the present Roman Canon from a pastoral standpoint), study group 10 would be honored to be allowed to work up some models. This was assigned to Study Group 10. Not only is the Roman Canon marred by structural defects, according to Vagaggini, but there are a number of theological defects as well. Why aren’t more people aware of the enormity of this change? Church teaching places the origin of the Eucharist in the Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples, at which he is believed to have taken bread and given it to his disciples, telling them to eat of it, because it was … Very precise norms should be set down for the use of each prayer; the choice of prayer should not be left to the celebrant. After having studied how we got from one Eucharistic Prayer to many, and after offering some reasons as to why things happened the way they did, it is now time to pose the question: how should we respond to the situation? Among the liturgical matters under discussion was the question of the new Eucharistic Prayers. Glenday, David K. "Mary in the Liturgy: An Ethiopian Anaphora." Thus for the last twenty-five years, the Roman rite has had the experience of many Eucharistic Prayers. Since I rely heavily on Bugnini’s account of this period and quote him frequently, all citations of his work will henceforth appear in the body of the text. Furthermore, the episcopal conferences should be granted authority to compose others proper to them. Eucharistic Prayer III. From a political point of view, it seems to be no accident that the enormous number of unauthorized Eucharistic Prayers in circulation came primarily from France, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, the countries which formed the backbone of the northern European progressive alliance in the Council. 220. In addition, the Congregation for Divine Worship was to send a letter to the presidents of the episcopal conferences indicating that each conference could choose one prayer from each category. The first reason is quite straightforward. Alternative prayers were proposed, therefore, for the sake of variety. [7] We have next the Anaphora of the Apostolic Tradition, called also the anaphora of Hippolytus, the Liturgy of the seventh book of the Apostolic Constitutions and the Liturgy of the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions that developed in the famous Byzantine Anaphora now part of the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, through the lost Greek version of the Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles (of which we have a later Syrian version). There should not be only three further Eucharistic Prayers, but a good many more: these should be taken from the Eastern liturgies. 460-465): a. April, 1967: the schema was approved by the presidential council of the Consilium, then by the Fathers. At a plenary meeting of the special Study Group, March 7-11, 1972, the Secretariat of State asked that the members be brought up to date concerning the recent communications sent by him to the Congregation for Divine Worship, lest the Fathers “in ignorance of the real thinking of his Holiness, proceed along the path traced out by the periti, although this is not fully in conformity with the directives given to them… (Bugnini, p.471, n.31)”. Such as they are, however, perhaps they can serve as a stimulus for discussion. 16 Notitiae 4 (1968) 157-160; DOL #242, pp.609-612. On the contrary, it is judged that the wiser course is to counsel a more complete catechesis on the real nature of the eucharistic prayer…”22. 26. On May 27, 1971, Divine Worship explained the problem to Pope Paul VI, suggesting that the issue needed to be more carefully studied: “We hear that the Liturgical Institute of Paris has collected and studied over two hundred Eucharistic Prayers… If the Holy Father agrees, the Congregation would like to undertake a systematic collection of all the existing material and study it…so that it may have a clear grasp of the dimensions of the problem and be able to tackle it with greater clarity and on a solid basis” (Bugnini, p.467). With introduction in 1969 of the Mass of Paul VI, it was allowed to have multiple choices of Eucharistic Prayer, however the authorization of new Eucharistic Prayers is reserved to the Holy See. In its first meeting, November 13-15, 1973, it was decided to composed three Eucharistic Prayers for Masses with children and two for the Holy Year. It would take someone versed in the history and theory of architecture to draw out all the implications of what I am suggesting (or to refute this intuition, as the case may be). It was sent to the pope on May 3, 1967. The Holy Father was putting the brakes on, but not discouraging further study. Not willing to wait for the word from Rome, however, many individuals and groups simply went ahead on their own. It culminates with the Oblation in which the bread and wine is lifted up while the priest exclaims: "Thine own of thine own we offer unto thee on behalf of all and for all.". What Is the Eucharistic Prayer, and What Is So August, Stark, Sacred, Majestic, and Awesome about It Anyway? Annibale Bugnini, the chairman of the Consilium, reports what happened: As a result of Father Bugnini’s visit to the Netherlands, a special committee was set up to examine some anaphoras sent by the [Dutch] liturgical commission. This is a radical change in the Roman liturgy. 11 Il canone della messa e la riforma liturgica, Torino-Leumann: Elle di Ci, 1966. All Rights Reserved. In other Latin rites, as in the Mozarabic Rite or the Gallican rite also the post-sanctus and the prayer after the Institution narrative till the doxology are completely variable.[2]:147. In Vagaggini’s book on the Roman canon, prepared for Study Group 10 of the Consilium (the group responsible for implementing the Council’s reform), the basic argument in favor of change is that the Roman canon is marred by serious defects of structure and theology. It is followed by the choir and congregation singing the Sanctus. Why did it happen? The combination of secular and theological forces in the late sixties had no little effect on the liturgy. Switzerland, on the occasion of its synod, received permission on February 13, 1974 for one Eucharistic Prayer with four thematic variations (as a result it actually seems like four different prayers). This tradition later developed, as first seen in the eucharistic prayer found in the Apostolic Tradition, into the now familiar shape that includes an institution narrative (of the Last Supper), a … The Dutch Episcopal conference, in the person of Bishop Jean Bluyssen of Hertogenbosch, president of the national liturgical commission and himself a member of the post-conciliar commission for the carrying out of the liturgical reforms (hereafter referred to as the Consilium), made an official request to the Holy See for permission to use these texts. (This norm, in effect, replaces the Roman Canon with Eucharistic Prayer III). For the English text cf. Nevertheless, what happened is something verifiable and concrete. Cassian studied music before joining the monastic community of Saint Meinrad in 1974. Bugnini, p.462. 27 The very next day, July 9, 1975, the Congregation for Divine Worship was suppressed and Archbishop Bugnini was relieved of his position. The Dutch bishops chose eleven Eucharistic Prayers out of the many in circulation and published them for official use (November 11, 1969). Born in Lynn, Massachusetts in 1955, Fr. When the Council optimistically opened the windows of the Church to the world, this was the wind that blew in. Because of these differences, it is essential that eucharistic liturgy be studied from a historical perspective. The Secretary of State responded on January 31, 1973, saying: “The substance of the letter is fine, but it needs to be milder in form, and the doctrinal and pastoral reasons for the decision should also be given” (Bugnini, p.474). I am to tell you that, all things considered, it is perhaps better to leave the traditional text unchanged; this, however, does not mean that study of the subject is not to continue (Bugnini, p.152, n.30). The Roman Canon would be burdensome if recited aloud, because it is always the same; 2. People And also with you. Liturgical historian Josef Jungmann counters this critique of Vagaggini’s by pointing out that Vagaggini is a systematic theologian who wanted to impose a certain preconceived theological structure on the Eucharistic Prayer. A week or so later, on June 2, 1968, the new president of the Consilium, Cardinal Benno Gut, sent a cover letter to the presidents of episcopal conferences17 along with guidelines to assist catechesis on the anaphoras of the Mass.18. In addition, modern houses have their own merits and conveniences. The letter of the Secretary of State also included the following directives which would later appear in the Instruction on Eucharistic Prayers put out by the Congregation for Divine Worship: * Episcopal Conferences must put an end to experimental Eucharistic Prayers. Eucharistic Prayers: after the Sanctus (“Holy, Holy, Holy”), when the people kneel, we have the praying of the Eucharistic Prayer. 17 “La publication“, Notitiae 4 (1968) 146-148; DOL #243, pp.612-613. All these put pressure on the Supreme Pastor… (Bugnini, p.474, n.32). 9 Philippe Béguerie, “La Prière Eucharistique“, Notitiae 20 (1984) 196. The Eucharist & the Word of God 3. The earliest text similar to the Roman Canon is the quoted in De Sacramentis of Ambrose which include prayers close to the Canon's prayers such as Quam Oblationem, Qui pridie, Unde et Memores, Supra quae - Suplices te. DOL #248, pp.623-629. For the English translation, cf. While the above response is sung, the priest begins to pray the first part of the anaphora quietly, although in some places this is said aloud. … As can be seen, not all the modi followed the same line of argument. When breaking the bread, the leader recited this blessing: “Blessed be thou, JHWH, our God, King of the universe, who bringest forth bread from the earth.” (Again, similar to the priest’s words at the Offertory of Mass.) 26 Cf. After the Sanctus follows a recapitulation of salvation history, especially the Incarnation, and leads into the words of Jesus over the bread and wine at the Mystical Supper, as Eastern Christians often refer to the Last Supper: "Take, eat, this is my body, which is broken for you, for the forgiveness of sins." A second reason for the change from one Eucharistic Prayer to many was dissatisfaction, on the part of some liturgical scholars, with the Roman canon. Another important source is the anaphora described in the Mystagogical Cathecheses of Theodore of Mopsuestia.[10]. Fine woodwork and stonework appear in the most hidden and out-of-the-way places. A sixth reason for the change from one Eucharistic Prayer to many is a very simple shift from old-rite formalism to new-rite formalism. Many ancient texts of anaphorae have survived, and even if no more in use, they are useful to trace the history of the anaphorae, and in general the history of the Eucharist during the centuries. 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Hand was doing always be used on Sundays and more solemn feasts volume Louis. 192-201 ; cf ; based on the other collaborators for the volume were Louis Ligier, Joseph,... Supplication, the Consilium and its work on the praise of the Roman Curia,:... Éditions Universitaires, 21968 our God light from the Holy Father, the episcopal conferences were also approved in! Are now addressed specifically to priests also approved provisionally in 1975 follow path! Principle of variety has an unchangeable preface… houses have their own merits and conveniences November,...

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